I need a multi-paragraph write-up (including an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, and a conclusion) with a minimum of 500 words. Create a write-up that addresses the information below and include your reaction to the ideas presented.
1) “Remember the Ladies”
a. Read the letters attached and links below–
b. Read The Status of Women on pages 169-171 of your textbook.
Questions to answer in your write-up:
I included the Benjamin Franklin’s letter so that you may understand how women were viewed by men during this time. We must understand that Abigail Adams' letter was quite brave and out of the ordinary. In general, men viewed women, during the 1700s, as subservient and inferior to men. Most women, in Abigail's position, would not have risked losing their social status and the life to which they had become accustomed by writing such a letter.
– Are women property? Are they marriage partners? Are they only "vassals" (subordinates) of men?
-What was Abigail Adams asking for when she wrote, "Remember the ladies"? (Hint: It's not equal rights. That would have been far too much to ask for.)
-What does she mean by "…all men would be tyrants…"?
-What does "despotism of the petticoat" mean?
-Why does Abigail Adams write a letter to her friend, Mercy Otis Warren, after receiving John Adams’ reply?
-What does she tell her friend?
-Do you think Abigail Adams felt like her husband had heard her pleas and respected her views? Explain.
-Why are the women mentioned on pages 187-189 of your textbook seen as revolutionaries?
-Were women represented in the Constitution? Explain.
-Are women now represented in the Constitution? Explain?
-What would a government set up by all women look like? (Currently Finland’s top government leaders are all women.)
Abigail Adams to Mercy Otis Warren, 27 April 1776
I set myself down to comply with my Friends request, who I think seem’s rather low spiritted.
I did write last week, but not meeting with an early conveyance I thought the Letter of But little importance and tos’d it away. I acknowledg my Thanks due to my Friend for the entertainment she so kindly afforded me in the Characters drawn in her Last Letter, and if coveting my Neighbours Goods was not prohibited by the Sacred Law, I should be most certainly tempted to envy her the happy talant she possesses above the rest of her Sex, by adorning with her pen even trivial occurances, as well as dignifying the most important. Cannot you communicate some of those Graces to your Friend and suffer her to pass them upon the World for her own that she may feel a little more upon an Eaquality with you?—Tis true I often receive large packages from P[hiladelphi]a. They contain as I said before more News papers than Letters, tho they are not forgotton. It would be hard indeed if absence had not some alleviations.
I dare say he writes to no one unless to Portia oftner than to your Friend, because I know there is no one besides in whom he has an eaquel confidence. His Letters to me have been generally short, but he pleads in Excuse the critical state of affairs and the Multiplicity of avocations and says further that he has been very Busy, and writ near ten Sheets of paper, about some affairs which he does not chuse to Mention for fear of accident.
He is very sausy to me in return for a List of Female Grievances which I transmitted to him. I think I will get you to join me in a petition to Congress. I thought it was very probable our wise Statesmen would erect a New Goverment and form a new code of Laws. I ventured to speak a word in behalf of our Sex, who are rather hardly dealt with by the Laws of England which gives such unlimitted power to the Husband to use his wife Ill.
I requested that our Legislators would consider our case and as all Men of Delicacy and Sentiment are averse to Excercising the power they possess, yet as there is a natural propensity in Humane Nature to domination, I thought the most generous plan was to put it out of the power of the Arbitary and tyranick to injure us with impunity by Establishing some Laws in our favour upon just and Liberal principals.
I believe I even threatned fomenting a Rebellion in case we were not considerd, and assured him we would not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we had neither a voice, nor representation.
In return he tells me he cannot but Laugh at My Extrodonary Code of Laws. That he had heard their Struggle had loosned the bands of Goverment, that children and apprentices were dissabedient, that Schools and Colledges were grown turbulant, that Indians slighted their Guardians, and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. But my Letter was the first intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerfull than all the rest were grown discontented. This is rather too coarse a complement, he adds, but that I am so sausy he wont blot it out.
So I have help’d the Sex abundantly, but I will tell him I have only been making trial of the Disintresstedness of his Virtue, and when weigh’d in the balance have found it wanting.
It would be bad policy to grant us greater power say they since under all the disadvantages we Labour we have the assendancy over their Hearts
And charm by accepting, by submitting sway.
I wonder Apollo and the Muses could not have indulged me with a poetical Genious. I have always been a votary to her charms but never could assend Parnassus myself.
I am very sorry to hear of the indisposition of your Friend. I am affraid it will hasten his return, and I do not think he can be spaired.
“Though certain pains attend the cares of State
A Good Man owes his Country to be great
Should act abroad the high distinguishd part
or shew at least the purpose of his heart.”
Good Night my Friend. You will be so good as to remember me to our worthy Friend Mrs. W——e 1 when you see her and write soon to your
RC (MHi: Warren-Adams Coll.); docketed in two later hands: “Mrs. Adams April 1776 No 6.” Dft (Adams Papers); undated and without indication of addressee, but at head of text JQA wrote “To Mrs. Warren,” and CFA added the tentative date “May 1776?”; text of Dft slightly shorter than that of RC.
1 . Mrs. John Winthrop. Last paragraph of Dft reads, instead: “I congratulate my Friend upon her Honorable apointment; I was told a few days ago, that a committee of 3 Ladies was chosen to Examine the Tory Ladies, your Ladyship, our Friend Mrs. W——e and your correspondent were the persons.”
John Adams to Abigail Adams (in reply to her March 31 letter):
Ap. 14, 1776
As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh. We have been told that our Struggle has loosened the bands of Government every where. That Children and Apprentices were disobedient — that schools and Colledges were grown turbulent — that Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. But your Letter was the first Intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerfull than all the rest were grown discontented. — This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy, I wont blot it out.
Depend upon it, We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems. Altho they are in full Force, you know they are little more than Theory. We dare not exert our Power in its full Latitude. We are obliged to go fair, and softly, and in Practice you know We are the subjects. We have only the Name of Masters, and rather than give up this, which would compleatly subject Us to the Despotism of the Peticoat, I hope General Washington, and all our brave Heroes would fight. I am sure every good Politician would plot, as long as he would against Despotism, Empire, Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, or Ochlocracy. — A fine Story indeed. I begin to think the Ministry as deep as they are wicked. After stirring up Tories, Landjobbers, Trimmers, Bigots, Canadians, Indians, Negroes, Hanoverians, Hessians, Russians, Irish Roman Catholicks, Scotch Renegadoes, at last they have stimulated to demand new Priviledges and threaten to rebell.
Abigail Adams to John Adams, 31 March 1776
Abigail Adams to John Adams
Braintree March 31 1776
Tho we felicitate ourselves, we sympathize with those who are trembling least the Lot of Boston should be theirs. But they cannot be in similar circumstances unless pusilanimity and cowardise should take possession of them. They have time and warning given them to see the Evil and shun it.—I long to hear that you have declared an independancy—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.
That your Sex are Naturally Tyrannical is a Truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no dispute, but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up the harsh title of Master for the more tender and endearing one of Friend. Why then, not put it out of the power of the vicious and the Lawless to use us with cruelty and indignity with impunity. Men of Sense in all Ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your Sex. Regard us then as Beings placed by providence under your protection and in immitation of the Supreem Being make use of that power only for our happiness.
Benjamin Franklin, Advice to a Young Man on the Choice of a Mistress
June 25, 1745
My dear Friend,
I know of no Medicine fit to diminish the violent natural Inclinations you mention; and if I did, I think I should not communicate it to you. Marriage is the proper Remedy. It is the most natural State of Man, and therefore the State in which you are most likely to find solid Happiness. Your Reasons against entering into it at present, appear to me not well-founded. The circumstantial Advantages you have in View by postponing it, are not only uncertain, but they are small in comparison with that of the Thing itself, the being married and settled. It is the Man and Woman united that make the compleat human Being. Separate, she wants his Force of Body and Strength of Reason; he, her Softness, Sensibility and acute Discernment. Together they are more likely to succeed in the World. A single Man has not nearly the Value he would have in that State of Union. He is an incomplete Animal. He resembles the odd Half of a Pair of Scissars. If you get a prudent healthy Wife, your Industry in your Profession, with her good Economy, will be a Fortune sufficient.
But if you will not take this Counsel, and persist in thinking a Commerce with the Sex inevitable, then I repeat my former Advice, that in all your Amours you should prefer old Women to young ones. You call this a Paradox, and demand my Reasons.
They are these:
1. Because as they have more Knowledge of the World and their Minds are better stor'd with Observations, their Conversation is more improving and more lastingly agreable.
2. Because when Women cease to be handsome, they study to be good. To maintain their Influence over Men, they supply the Diminution of Beauty by an Augmentation of Utility. They learn to do a 1000 Services small and great, and are the most tender and useful of all Friends when you are sick. Thus they continue amiable. And hence there is hardly such a thing to be found as an old Woman who is not a good Woman.
3. Because there is no hazard of Children, which irregularly produc'd may be attended with much Inconvenience.
4. Because thro' more Experience, they are more prudent and discreet in conducting an Intrigue to prevent Suspicion. The Commerce with them is therefore safer with regard to your Reputation. And with regard to theirs, if the Affair should happen to be known, considerate People might be rather inclin'd to excuse an old Woman who would kindly take care of a young Man, form his Manners by her good Counsels, and prevent his ruining his Health and Fortune among mercenary Prostitutes.
5. Because in every Animal that walks upright, the Deficiency of the Fluids that fill the Muscles appears first in the highest Part: The Face first grows lank and wrinkled; then the Neck; then the Breast and Arms; the lower Parts continuing to the last as plump as ever: So that covering all above with a Basket, and regarding2 only what is below the Girdle, it is impossible of two Women to know an old from a young one. And as in the dark all Cats are grey, the Pleasure of corporal Enjoyment with an old Woman is at least equal, and frequently superior, every Knack being by Practice capable of Improvement.
6. Because the Sin is less. The debauching a Virgin may be her Ruin, and make her for Life unhappy.
7. Because the Compunction is less. The having made a young Girl miserable may give you frequent bitter Reflections; none of which can attend the making an old Woman happy.
8thly and Lastly They are so grateful!!
Thus much for my Paradox. But still I advise you to marry directly; being sincerely
Your affectionate Friend.
1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion
British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763 – 66)
Impact of Pontiac’s Rebellion?
Convinced the British:
To avoid future conflicts, colonists’ settlements into the territories needed to slow down
Proclamation Line of 1763
British Proclamation Line of 1763
Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)
Proclamation of 1763
Acknowledged that Natives owned the lands on which they were then residing
White settlers in the area were to be removed
Forbade the colonies from making land grants beyond the Appalachian divide
This enraged colonists
They had just supported the British army in its quest for land only to be kept from lands in the western frontier
A number of settlers ignored the proclamation entirely and moved into the prohibited area.
1. Sugar Act – 1764
2. Currency Act – 1764
4. Stamp Act – 1765
3. Quartering Act – 1765
George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
Loyal Nine – 1765
Sons of Liberty – began in NYC, 1765
Stamp Act Congress – 1765
Declaratory Act – 1766
Stamp Act Crisis
During a series of protests linked to the Sons of Liberty, colonists burn and sack the house of Thomas Hutchinson, lieutenant governor of Massachusetts.
Opposition was so stiff to the Stamp Act, and so many people were boycotting, Britain repealed the Stamp Act in 1766. Shortly thereafter, however, Britain issued the Declaratory Act of 1766 which stated that Parliament could take "whatever action they thought fit for the good of the empire." Colonists were so overjoyed at the repeal of the Stamp Act, however, they failed to see the importance of the Declaratory Act.
For the first time,
many colonists began
calling people who
Townshend Act ~ 1767
Charles Townshend persuaded Parliament put taxes on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea, raising $$ to pay for the British troops stationed in the colonies.
Repealed by Parliament because it raised little $$, but they kept the tax on tea.
Significance: Increased intercolonial unity and increased the revolutionary spirit in colonists, enraged by the principle of taxation without representation.
Tar and Feathering
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770)
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citizenry.
The presence of British troops in the city of Boston was increasingly unwelcome. The riot began when about 50 citizens attacked a British sentinel. A British officer, Captain Thomas Preston, called in additional soldiers, and these too were attacked, so the soldiers fired into the mob, killing 3 on the spot (a black sailor named Crispus Attucks, ropemaker Samuel Gray, and a mariner named James Caldwell), and wounding 8 others, two of whom died later (Samuel Maverick and Patrick Carr).
The Boston Massacre was a signal event leading to the Revolutionary War. It led directly to the Royal Governor evacuating the occupying army from the town of Boston. It would soon bring the revolution to armed rebellion throughout the colonies.
The incident started when a wigmaker's apprentice, Edward Gerrish, complained to local army British soldiers that a man named John Goldfinch had not paid his bill. Goldfinch ignored these claims, but Gerrish returned later with a small crowd. The tension grew. The crowd grew, shouting insults at the soldiers, and as the evening grew later an estimated 300-400 people surrounded the troops and pressed them into a tight circle. The soldiers fired their muskets under duress and killed five colonists.
The Gaspee Incident (1772)
Providence, RI coast
Customs ships continued to patrol the sea off the coast of America. They would regularly stop merchant ships to examine their cargo looking for illegal goods, and enforcing British customs and taxation laws. The Gaspee was a British Royal Navy ship assigned to customs duty. On June 9, 1772, the Gaspee was chasing a merchant ship believed to be smuggling goods. The Gaspee ran aground in Narragansett Bay, near Providence. The next night, a group of men boarded the Gaspee. They were led by John Brown, a wealthy merchant from Providence. They wounded the lieutenant who was commanding the ship, and set the ship on fire.
The British ordered a full investigation. They offered a reward to anyone identifying the people responsible. No one came forward, and no one was ever charged for the offence.
The British once again tried to gain more control over the colonies. The British began to directly pay the governors' salary, rather than being paid by the colonies. The British hoped that by paying the governor's salary, they would eliminate the colonies ability to control the governor by withholding salary.
The colonies saw this as another step to put them under British control, and to eliminate their freedoms.
Committees of Correspondence
Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with British broaden the resistance movement.
Tea Act (1773)
British East India Co.:
Monopoly on British tea imports.
Many members of Parliament held shares.
Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to colonies without colonial middlemen (cheaper tea!)
Lord North expected the colonies to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
In 1773 Parliament passed the Tea Act, which gave the English East India Company a chance to avert bankruptcy by granting a monopoly on the importation of tea into the colonies. The new regulations allowed the company to sell tea to the colonists at a low price, lower than the price of smuggled tea, even including the required duty. The British reasoned that the Americans would willingly pay the tax if they were able to pay a low price for the tea.
A group of some 50 men, unconvincingly disguised as Mohawk Indians, moved the short distance to Griffin’s Wharf where the three ships were moored.
The vessels were boarded, the cargo carefully taken from the holds and placed on the decks. There, 342 chests were split open and thrown into the harbor. A cheering crowd on the dock shouted its approval for the brewing of this “saltwater tea.”
Why did the Colonists dress up as Indians?
Prior to the Revolution there were several instances of colonists dressing as Indians while protesting British rule.
Protesters dressed as Natives to connect the demonstration with a symbol of liberty.
Hide their identities, liberating them from punishment
342 chests of 45 tons of tea. Took nearly 3 hours for more than 100 colonists to empty the tea into Boston Harbor.
The water in the harbor was brown for several days.
Cost the British gov’t $3 million in today’s $.
The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774)
Prime Minister of Great Britain, January 1770-March 1782
Boston Port Act (June 1, 1774)
Quartering Act (June 2, 1774)
Administration of Justice Act (May 20, 1774)
Massachusetts Government Act (May 20, 1774)
1. The measure closed the port facilities in Boston effective June 1, 1774, until the city saw fit to reimburse the East India Company for the cost of the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party, and paid for the damage caused to the customs offices during the unrest. Bostonians were also required to prove to the crown's satisfaction that they were peaceable subjects.
2. Lord North’s disciplinary program against Massachusetts following the Boston Tea Party. Under previous legislation, the colonies were required to provide soldiers with living accommodations in public facilities, such as inns and taverns or unoccupied buildings. The Quartering Act differed from the other Coercive Acts in that its terms applied to all of the American colonies, not Massachusetts alone.
3. Parliament’s offensive against Massachusetts, the perpetrator of the Boston Tea Party, included an effort to afford legal protections to officials serving in the disobedient colony. The Administration of Justice Act provided that British officials accused of capital crimes in the execution their duties in suppressing riots or collecting lawful taxes in Massachusetts could avoid hostile local juries. Angry colonists labeled this particular Coercive Act the “Murder Act,” because it offered a means for accused murderers to escape colonial justice.
4. Ended the colony’s charter and provided for an unprecedented amount of royal control. Severe limits were placed on the powers of town meetings, the essential ingredient of American self-government. Further, most elective offices in the colony were to be filled with royal appointees, not with popularly elected officials.
The Quebec Act (1774)
On the heels of the Intolerable Acts, Parliament passed the Quebec Act, a well-intentioned measure designed to afford greater rights to the French inhabitants of Canada, which had come under British rule through the Treaty of Paris in 1763. In the succeeding years, British efforts to incorporate Quebec into the empire had been a notable failure.
American opposition to the Quebec Act stemmed from a deep-seated hatred of the French. Colonists a decade earlier had celebrated the demise of the French Empire, but now feared that it was making a comeback. Similar feelings about the Catholic Church sparked dread in the hearts of Protestant Americans.
The fear of a resurgent Roman Catholic France in North America was one of the prime reasons that early in the War for Independence, the Americans would invade Quebec in an effort to end the threat once and for all.
First Continental Congress (1774)
55 delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies
Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?
1 vote per colony represented.
In response to the Intolerable Acts and Quebec Act, the colonist banded together to fight back. Several committees of colonists called for a convention of delegates from the colonies to organize resistance to the Intolerable Acts. The convention was later to be called the Continental Congress.
Georgia did not attend because they were facing attacks from the restive Creek on their borders and desperately needed the support of regular British soldiers.
The British Are Coming . . . ?
Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
Revere did not shout the phrase later attributed to him ("The British are coming!"): His mission depended on secrecy, the countryside was filled with British army patrols, and the Massachusetts colonists (who were predominantly English in ethnic origin) still considered themselves British.  Revere's warning, according to eyewitness accounts of the ride and Revere's own descriptions, was "The Regulars are coming out."[
The Shot Heard ’Round the World!
Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
British soldiers in Boston were sent to capture the militias weapons.
Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Israel Bissell warned the colonists that, “The Red Coats are coming.”
British troops marched to Concord to capture colonial leaders and the ammunition and weapons that were stored there.
The first two battles of the American Revolution were fought at Lexington and Concord, when the American militia met up with British forces.
There are Only 22 Countries in the World Britain Has NOT Invaded
The Second Continental Congress (July, 1775)
Olive Branch Petition
In July 1775, the Second Continental Congress made a final effort to seek reconciliation with Britain and end the fighting. The chief advocate of this effort was John Dickinson, a conservative delegate from Pennsylvania, who authored the Olive Branch Petition.
The king refused to receive the petition, perhaps being especially sensitive because word had recently been received that the Americans had launched an invasion of Canada — an act of unbelievable aggression in British eyes.
On August 23, George III proclaimed the American colonies to be in rebellion and urged that all efforts should be made “to suppress such rebellion, and bring the traitors to justice.”
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
Declaration of Independence (1776)
DID THIS REALLY HAPPEN?
New National Symbols
U.S. History SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS P. SCOTT CORBETT, VENTURA COLLEGE JAY PRECHT, PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FAYETTE VOLKER JANSSEN, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY–FULLERTON JOHN M. LUND, KEENE STATE COLLEGE TODD PFANNESTIEL, CLARION UNIVERSITY PAUL VICKERY, ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY SYLVIE WASKIEWICZ, LEAD EDITOR
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