Please make sure you follow all the professor instructions . Please watch out for spelling errors and grammar error. Please use the APA 7 edition. Please read the study guide.Apply headings to delineate topic transitions. Be sure you include an explanation of your research and business problem within an introduction with a citation to support a literature gap.
Book Reference:Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331
For this assignment, you will evaluate articles so that you can begin to develop your literature review. Using the CSU Online Library, select five peer-reviewed scholarly articles based on your final statement of the business problem provided in your Unit II Discussion Board post. Utilizing the CSU template found in the Doctoral Writing and Research Center (DWRC), include the components listed below for each scholarly article.
This assignment should be at least three pages in length. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.
What is the Impact of Training on Employee Productivity?
What is the Impact of Training on Employee Productivity?
Most existing entities have a department dealing with Human resources. The output of a business is related to the skills employed. Human labor is highly flexible in terms of quality. In other words, the level of knowledge in any worker is adjustable. Training improves both the worker and the business.
Understanding the role of training the workforce will help business people shape their decisions. Management that invests in training its workforce records higher performance. Many times, skilled labor lacks the specifications unique to running an organization. Training makes a qualified worker more productive. It also builds the capacity of the semiskilled workforce to competent levels.
When human resource managers get to know the value of training, productivity and diversity can upscale. In the very hiring stage, the bar gets adjusted to accommodate laborers with the potential to gain a skill. Organizations ought to invest in policies that can help training by introducing clear details outlined in manuals (Badhu and Saxena, 1999). They noted that the changing economic dimensions demanded complex banking services and recommended training employees to balance the gap of higher expectations.
The organizational workforce comprises diverse persons who acquired skills in different environments and were guided in different ways. That means that though two people may have similar qualifications in terms of academic achievements, their expertise when delivering will most likely differ. Their approach to circumstances may be different, but training comes in as an equalizer.
Many studies have proved that training the workforce is a venture that positively contributes to productivity. The activity happens as an expense at the time of delivery which the employer must meet. Returns reflect on the output as a continuous practice rather than a one-time gain. Many corporations, banks, factories, and organizations are adopting a training culture on staffing. In return, frustrations from underperforming workers have been considerably lowered. Managers who go the extra mile of investing much in training have registered higher achievements than cheap training (Ramu, 2006).
According to Purohit (2012), Training equips workers with knowledge in their job fields. The study's goal was to assess the effect of training on workers' execution of duties and fulfillment of customers. They used existing policies of running cooperative banks to commend human resource practices of training the workforce. They did Personal interviews through questionnaires around the Pune region. The research used a sample of Sixteen banks, and thirty employees responded. They noted that frequent and deep training promotes productivity.
Some of the reasons that necessitate training include a desire for personal growth, customer complaints, and new work policies in organizations, among others. However, the development of a business is determined by many factors. It is important to mention that leadership organization plays a major role in the success of a business. The strategies management adopts and decisions they make to harmonize all production factors determine an organization's productivity. Competent management can utilize available resources to maximize profits and minimize losses.
Sal, A., & Raja, M. (2016). The impact of training and development on employees performance and productivity. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, 5(7).
Zwick, T. (2006). The impact of training intensity on establishment productivity. Industrial relations: a journal of economy and society, 45(1), 26-46.
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 1
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
3. Analyze the literature review process necessary to complete the doctoral research study. 3.1 Examine scholarly articles for inclusion in a literature review.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
3.1 Unit Lesson Article: “Supervision in Coaching: Systematic Literature Review” Unit III Scholarly Activity
Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resource, click the link below.
Bachkirova, T., Jackson, P., Hennig, C., & Moral, M. (2020, Autumn). Supervision in coaching: Systematic
literature review. International Coaching Psychology Review, 15(2), 31–53. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=a9h&AN=144722661&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Unit Lesson At this point in your dissertation journey, you may be asking yourself several questions, or you may not be sure where to move next. You are not alone in this regard. Organization is the key to make sure you can complete your doctoral journey, especially regarding writing a literature review.
Where to Begin Preparing for and creating a literature review can seem like a daunting task. For many doctoral students, it is the hardest part of writing the doctoral study/dissertation. In Unit II, the unit lesson provided you with tips on how to critically review a journal article. You were given examples of questions that you should ask as you read each article. Not only is it important to understand all of the methods and procedures for the study, but it is also critical to understand how it fits into your study. How can you use the article in your writing? Again,
UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Building a Literature Review
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 2
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
how does it support your study? For example, does it provide justification for some decision that you have made? Does it support the gap? Is it a component of one of the themes you found and will discuss in your literature review? Does it provide support for your methodology, design, or method choices? Does it provide background information for the theory or model you chose for your theoretical/conceptual framework? Once you decide an article is appropriate for your paper and you know how it will support your study, you can begin to categorize the articles.
Importance of Categorizing Articles Articles should be categorized because you will want to be organized and be able to quickly access the right articles when it comes time to write your literature review. Imagine that you are working on your literature review, and you want to write about current research for your chosen theoretical or conceptual framework. If you do not know which articles those are, then you will waste time looking for them. One method of categorizing is to save the articles in different folders on your computer. For example, you could create folders titled as methodology, design, technology acceptance model (TAM), or others to house your articles. If one article is used in multiple ways, then you could save the article in multiple folders. The downside of this approach is that you do not have any specific information for each article. Again, you may waste time rereading articles to find what you need.
Tools Needed to Succeed One method, which is ideal for those of us who like to hold paper in hand, scribble notes, and use highlighters, is to print the article (if it is short) or print the abstract page (if it is lengthy). You can categorize the article based on your need for it and write the categories at the top. The following are examples of categorizations depending on your topic: qualitative, case study, job satisfaction, and financial industry. You can highlight the passages that are important to you. Then, you can create physical folders for your articles. Another method is to create an Excel workbook to hold this information. With this approach, you could create sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook for each category and, within that page (worksheet), store all of the information about the articles. This way, if articles serve more than one purpose, you can copy and paste a row under multiple tabs. An example of the type of information to collect from each article in order to place in an Excel worksheet is provided below.
• Data collection method
• Data analysis method
• Pertinent findings Either of these approaches work. The point is to have those articles handy when you write about that topic. Do what works for you! Do not waste energy and time!
Literature Review Topics The type of topics that can be used for a literature review differ based on the university and may vary slightly based on your study, so it is important that you pay close attention to your Columbia Southern University (CSU) template. A suggestion for an outline is below, but again, your headings and subheadings will be tailored to your study.
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 3
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Review the suggested outline below.
• Chapter 2: Literature Review o Introduction
• Theoretical Foundations o Theory/Model 1 o Theory/Model 2
• Review of the Literature o Topic 1
▪ Subtopic 1.1 ▪ Subtopic 1.2
o Topic 2 o Topic 3 o Methodology o Instrumentation or Data Collection Method
• Summary This outline does not tell you what must be included in these sections. In the CSU template, there are specific guidelines, but for the purposes of this class and discussion, a summary of each is provided below. The verbiage below the main heading is introductory information about what is contained in the chapter and how you conducted your literature review. Theoretical Foundations This section contains the theories or models you chose for your theoretical/conceptual framework. You will want to discuss each theory or model in-depth, including the author, the year it was created, the components, and how it will support your study. You will want to include a review of current research using that theory or model. For example, you might be using leadership style as one of your quantitative study independent variables, so you would likely be using Bass and Avolio’s (1990) full-range of transformational leadership model as a part of your theoretical framework. Similarly, you might be using toxic leadership in a qualitative study, so you might use Padilla et al.’s (2007) toxic triangle as a part of your conceptual framework. Either way, you would want to provide current research studies that use the model or theory that you will use as your theoretical/conceptual framework. Review of the Literature This section contains a discussion of all of the current research on your topic. If you are doing a qualitative study, the current research articles will be exhaustive and based on your phenomenon. If you are doing a quantitative study, the current research articles will be exhaustive and based on your variables. Topics Topics in your literature review refer to the themes that you found when gathering your current research articles. For example, you may have four main topics: leadership, motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction. Subtopics Subtopics are subthemes under each main theme. For example, under the main theme of motivation, you might have found some studies involving extrinsic motivators and some studies that involve intrinsic motivators. Methodology Under this heading, you will discuss the current research articles you found that use the same methodology and design that you are using for your research study. These articles support your decisions. For example, let’s assume that based on your problem statement and research questions, you chose a qualitative, multiple
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 4
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
case study as your methodology and design. You will want to reference other current research studies that have used a qualitative case study design to explore topics similar to yours. Instrumentation or Data Collection Method Under this heading, you will discuss the current research articles you found that use the same instrument (quantitative) or data collection methods (qualitative) that you are using for your research study. These articles support your decisions. For example, let’s assume that one of your quantitative independent variables is leadership style. How do you define leadership style? There are many ways to do this. Perhaps you would use autocratic versus democratic leadership styles. Let’s assume you want to use Bass and Avolio’s (1990) full-range of transformational leadership model for your leadership styles. This means you would use the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X (MLQ 5X) instrument that includes transformational versus transactional versus laissez-faire leadership. How can you justify this decision in your study? You would find current research articles that have used the MLQ 5X survey instrument for leadership styles. Then, you would discuss the articles in this section of your literature review. Summary Just like most summaries, this section contains a brief discussion of what was included in your Chapter 2. The final paragraph tells the reader what is to come in Chapters 3, 4, and 5.
Putting the Pieces Together By the time you write your literature review, you will have read and collected at least 50 peer-reviewed articles. In reality that number will probably be closer to 100 articles. You will have identified all of the important aspects of each article. You will have categorized each article so that you know exactly how it supports your study or which theme/subtheme it fits under. You have everything you need. Before you start writing, it is suggested that you create your own outline. You can use the outline above as your guide. What are the main themes that you found? What are the subthemes? Once you have your outline, then you can start to write by focusing on each section. Pull those articles up that you need for that section. Make your assertions, and then use the articles as support. Compare and contrast your selection of articles. It sounds easy, but it is not. It is a long process, and it can be arduous, but if you approach it systematically and follow the guidance provided in Unit II and Unit III, you will have a good literature review before you know it.
References Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). The multifactor leadership questionnaire. Consulting Psychologists Press. Faithiecannoise. (n.d.). ID 66889533 [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-
writing-dissertation-graduate-holding-books-laptop-d-students-big-stack-thesis-draft-image66889533 Padilla, A., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2007, June). The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible
followers, and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 176–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.001
Suggested Unit Resources Chapter 6 offers insight into how you can organize your time and space when you are working on your doctoral study/dissertation Chapter 6: Organizing Yourself
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 5
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Although you read Chapter 9 in the last unit, reviewing it again will be helpful when writing your literature review. Chapter 9: Reviewing the Literature
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Read the article provided in the Required Unit Resources section. Write a one-page reflection paper detailing the iterative and systematic process of building a literature review. Were you surprised by the level of detail and effort needed to complete a literature review? How has this article helped to shape your plan to create the literature review for your doctoral study/dissertation?
Review of Management, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, June 2015
Impact of Training on Employees’ Job Performance:
A Case Study of Malaysian Small Medium Enterprise
Jamsari bin Atan, Santhi Raghavan
Open University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Nik Hasnaa Nik Mahmood University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
E-mail: [email protected]
The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of training on employee job
performance. The study is carried at a Malaysian small and medium enterprise (SME).
This research examines the training factor that affected the job performance of
employees of the company. The functional area which is associated with the effective
human resource management practices of the company selected for the study has been
examined comprising of training and employees’ job performance. 85 employees from
the respective production units of the company voluntarily participated in the survey
using questionnaire. Findings indicate that there is relationship between effective training
and employees’ job performance.
Keywords: Training, Job Performance, Small Medium Enterprise, Malaysia
This study focuses on the impact of training on employee job performance. The way an
organization trains people can influence its performance. Organizations can adopt various
training practices to enhance employee job performance as well as motivate them to work
harder towards achieving the set targets. An effective human resource management practices
can be the main factor for the success of a firm (Stavrou-Costea, 2005). Influence of human
resource management and training practices on organizational performance has been a
significant area of research in past 25 years indicating positive relationship between Human
Resource Management practices and organizational performance (Qureshi et al., 2007).
Scholars and researchers were involved in exploring how training and HRM practices
affected employee job performance, and organizational performance. Qureshi et al. (2007)
and Qureshi et al. (2010) identified how HRM practices in training impacts organizational
This research explores the training practices and their outcomes in Linaco Manufacturing (M)
Sdn Bhd, as well as the impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on
employee’s job performance of Linaco. Research on training and HRM practices has been
studied extensively among manufacturing and small & medium enterprises. These theoretical
and empirical studies have generally focused on HRM practices within western organizations.
Relatively few studies have been done about the impact of HRM practices of training on firm
performance in Asian countries (Zheng, Morrison and O’Neill, 2006). Employee training has
Review of Management, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, June 2015
been a matter of concern and attention by any business field nowadays. Training can be used
to correct the skill deficit. It is also job specific and addresses particular performance deficits
or problems. A fundamental objective of training is the elimination or improvement of
performance problems. To be successful, a training program must have clear stated and
realistic goals (David, 2010).These goals will guide the program’s content and determine the
criteria by which its effectiveness will be judged. Training can also assist in developing
human capital. Also, human resource practices can influence employee motivation by linking
performance with incentives (Huselid,1995), Zheng, Morrison and O’Neill (2006)
The Impact of Training on Employees’ Job Performance
Guest (2002) has demonstrated that the impact of HRM on job performance depends upon
response of worker towards HRM practices, so the impact will move in direction of the
perception of employees by practicing HRM. Ghebregiorgis & Karstan (2007) said that the
perception of the employees provide broader evaluation of HRM systems. He also evaluated
a positive picture of HRM practices including training strategy. Qureshi et al. (2007)
concluded that training are positively correlated with employee’s job performance. Patterson
et al. (1997) has explained that HR practices in training effects the job performance of the
employee provided appropriate skills.
Understanding of Training Effectiveness
Studies suggest that many training and development activities are implemented on blind faith
with only the hope that they will yield resist (Arthur, Bennett, Edens & Bell, 2003).
According to Broad and Newstrom (1992), seldom are training programs rigorously
evaluated to determine their effect on the behavior or job performance of participants.
Therefore, it is important to explore methods to encourage transfer of learning in order to
achieve greater training impact on human resource practices. Mayfield (2011) suggested that
training effectiveness is a good predictor of employee training. This association suggests that
when employees have been trained in a training program, the training effectiveness is likely
to be followed by job behavior (Pelham, 2009). Previous studies also suggest that
demographic variables such as age, degree held, and experience were related to training
impact in some studies (Devins, Johnson and Sutherland, 2010) The focus of previous work
has been on the relationships between training effectiveness and employees’ demographic
Training Environment Training environment includes training facilities, site layout, sound lighting, hardware
environment, classroom climate, student involvement of the soft environment. Therefore,
only training of trainers and employees and work together can create a better learning
atmosphere and environment. According to Martin (2010), training environment has an effect
on training effectiveness on human resource practices among employees.
Work environment includes such factors as managerial support, peer encouragement,
adequate resources, opportunities to apply learned skills, technical support, and consequences
for using training on-the-job (Burke and Hutchins, 2008). Managers can show support for
training in a variety of ways ranging from simply allowing employees to attend the training to
participating in the training itself as an instructor (Burke and Baldwin, 1999). Peer support
enhances learning transfer through the feedback, encouragement, problem-solving assistance,
supplemental information, and coaching provided to trainees (Facteau et. al., 1995).
Review of Management, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, June 2015
Research’s hypothesis: The hypothesis for this research are as follows;-
H1: There is a relationship between training and employee job performance
H2: There is an impact of effective training practices on employee job performance.
Research Framework: The research framework for this study involved 2 main variables
consists of independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable consists of
training and the dependent variable consists of employee job performance.
Research Design: This face-to face survey is conducted at Linaco Manufacturing (M) Sdn
Bhd on respondents from all production units. The company’s HR Management was first
consulted for their approval for the survey exercise. Quantitative data was used in this
research. A set of questionnaires were distributed with the support of the company
management to these employees. Initially the questionnaire was formulated to determine the
staff perception. Each set contains 40 questions that can be answered within 15 minutes as
part of company condition for the study approval.
Population and Sampling: The total population of production workers of Linaco
Manufacturing (M) Sdn Bhd consists of 103 workers who are working in the respective 4
sections of production units. The sections involved were Canning Section, Packaging Section,
Kernel Section and Coconut Milk Sections. From 103 workers, only 85 respondents were
selected or (82.52%) from the total production workers by using random sampling.
According to Hair and Bush (2003), target population is said to be a specified group of
people or object for which questions can be asked or observed made to develop required data
structures and information. The percentage of response rate is extremely important in a
survey because it indicates how much bias there might be in the final sample of respondents.
The lower response rate, the greater the likelihood that such biases may distort the findings
and in turn, limit the ability to generalize the findings to the population of interest. A
response rate of about 50% is generally considered adequate for survey research, 60% is
considered a good return rate, and 70% is very good (Babbie, 1995).
Data Analysis asnd Results
It can be seen from Table 1 that 43 (50.6%) of the respondents were male and 42 (49.40%)
of the respondents were female. 57 (67.10%) education level of the respondents were O-level,
20 (23.50%) were certificate holders, 4 (4.70%) were diploma holders and 4 (4.70%) of them
were degree holders. From this table, out from the 85 respondents, 24 (28.20%) of them aged
between18-25, 30 (35.30%) aged between 26-30, 9 (10.60%) aged between 31-35, 14
(16.50%) aged between 36-40, 4(4.70%) aged between 41-45, and 4(4.70%) aged above 50.
The average age of the respondent is relatively young with 63 (74.11 %) of the respondents
were below 35 years old. Table 1 also shows that 19 (22.40%) of them were employed less
than 1 year, 34 (40.00%) employed between 1-2 years, 19 ( 22.40%) employed 3-5 years, 6
(7.10%) employed between 6-10 years and 7 ( 8.20%) employed more than 10 years. It can
also be seen that there is quite high employee turnover rate as indicated by 53(62.40%) of the
respondents having served the company of less than three years despite the fact that the
company has been operating for more than ten years. As can be seen on Table 1, the
distribution of respondents’ salary. Out from the 85 respondents, 27 (31.80%) of them were
paid less than RM900 per month, 33 (38.80%) paid RM900-1249 per month, 20 (23.50%)
paid between RM1250 to RM1499 per month, and only 5 (5.90%) paid more than RM1500
per month. The survey revealed that the average salary of the respondents is relatively low
whereby 60 (70.60%) of them receive RM1,249 or less.
Review of Management, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, June 2015
Table 1 Respondents Demographic Analysis
Frequency Percent Range
Gender Male 43 50.6
Female 42 49.54
Education O-Level 57 67.1
Certificate 20 23.5 Diploma 4 4.7 Degree 4 4.7
Age 18-25 24 28.2
26-30 30 35.3 31-35 9 10.6 36-60 14 16.5 41-45 4 4.7 50 above 4 4.7
Employ period Less 1 year 19 22.4
1-2 34 40 3-5 19 22.4 6-10 6 7.1 More 10 yrs 7 8.1
Salary Less RM900 27 31.8
RM900-RM1249 33 38.8 RM1250-RM1499 20 23.5 RM1500 above 5 5.9 85 100
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